This marks the third visit by an American dignitary this month, after Speaker Nancy Pelosi defied advice to not visit the island at the beginning of August.
Senator Marsha Blackburn flew into Taipei on board a US military aircraft, where she was greeted by the director general of Taiwan’s foreign affairs ministry Douglas Hsu.
The senator said in a statement: “Taiwan is our strongest partner in the Indo-Pacific Region.
“Regular high-level visits to Taipei are long-standing US policy.
“I will not be bullied by Communist China into turning my back on the island.”
China has long claimed Taiwan as its sovereign territory, despite its democratically elected government.
Following Speaker Pelosi’s visit Beijing launched a series of military drills near the island’s sea and airspace.
Spokesman for China’s Embassy in Washington Liu Pengyu has vowed the Chinese government would take “resolute countermeasures” in response to these “provocations”.
The Taiwanese Foreign Ministry said: “The two sides will exchange views extensively on issues such as Taiwan-US security and economic and trade relations.”
The Biden administration has been attempting to soothe flaring tensions between the US and China and avoid full-blown conflict.
A White House National Security Council spokesperson said: “Members of Congress and elected officials have gone to Taiwan for decades and will continue to do so, and this is in line with our longstanding One China policy.”